Sterilization is a permanent method of contraception that is suitable for people who are sure they do not want children or more children. Sterilization is available for both women and men and there are a few different types of procedures. Before you decide on sterilization, try speaking to an independent counselor or your gynecologist. There are other forms of long-acting contraception which are as efficient in preventing unplanned pregnancies, but without the permanence. Reversal of the procedure is sometimes possible; however, its success rates cannot be guaranteed.
Female sterilization can be achieved through surgical and non-surgical techniques. Both methods completely stop the sperm from reaching an egg in the womb and is performed in a hospital under general anesthesia.
Surgical method: The surgical method, called tubal litigation, involves tying and cutting the fallopian tubes. The tubes can also be sealed using an electrical current or closed with clips, clamps, or rings. A medical device is put inside the tube through the vagina with a special catheter. In some cases, a small piece of the fallopian tube is removed. This method requires a considerably longer recovery time due to the invasive nature of the operation. Tubal litigation only affects a woman’s fertility with no effect on her libido or ability to have sex.
Non-surgical method: Non-surgical sterilization works by blocking the passages of the fallopian tubes so nothing may enter nor exit the womb, preventing fertilization. A small, flexible metal insert is put into the tubes through the vagina with a special catheter. The device causes scar tissue to form around the coil, which then blocks the tubes. This method only achieves permanence after 3 months, so you are advised to use a different contraception method during that period.
Male sterilization, also referred to as a vasectomy, is a surgical procedure in which the sperm-carrying ducts are cut, then sealed or tied to prevent fertilization, and may be done under local anesthesia. After the procedure, a man can still ejaculate but there is no sperm present. Vasectomy only affects a man’s fertility but has no effect on his libido or the ability to have sex.
Reference: http://www.fpa.org.uk/contraception-help/your-guide-contraception Accessed on September 6, 2016 (PP-YAZ-MY-0056-01(10/2018))
Allows sexual spontaneity and does not interrupt sex
It isn’t affected by other medications
Suitable for everyone who never wants to have a child (or does not want any more children) and wants a permanent contraceptive option
It is it irreversible
May cause pain, bleeding, infection or other complications after surgery
May cause tubal pregnancy (fetus develops in the fallopian tube instead of the womb)
Rarely, there can be a failure in which the Fallopian tubes reopen, or closure is incomplete
Does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)